Explanation of Terms (at the bottom of this page)
A true story:A high tech company asked an Alberta contract manufacturer to build 180 pieces of their new electronics product. The price the Alberta company charged was $75 per unit. The units were shipped in 5 weeks with 100% of the units in working order and the high tech company was very happy with these units. In the meantime, the high tech company had also found a contract manufacturer in Asia to manufacture a larger run of 1,200 units which they negotiated at a price of $52 per unit. The high tech company received the order from Asia after a 4 month wait time, no flexibility in the product design, flights to Asia to check on production, along with duties and customs charges. After this hassle and additional costs, the high tech company went back to the contract manufacturer in Alberta and asked for a quote on the 1,200 units and found that they would have charged $56 a unit, a difference of only $4 per unit or 8%, which would have easily outweighed their hassle costs.
Point of the story: Many people still have the mindset that going to Asia is the only way to get products made at a reasonable price. But today, as the example in the story shows, the difference between manufacturing in Asia and North America might be very small, especially for medium volumes and when all the costs involved are considered.
Product cost breakdown: Whether an electronics product is made in Asia or North America, approximately 90% of its cost is the materials that go into it. This leaves 10% of the cost for labour, but about 90% of the work of placing computer chips on circuit boards is done by robotic machines now. Shipping costs from Asia to North America continue to rise, as does labour costs in Asia. The cost of equipment is the same in both places.
Advantage of manufacturing in Asia: The Apple iPod is an example of high volume production with little product variation (low mix). It requires a huge pool of people, often in excess of 30,000 people under one roof, and creation of a manufacturing campus with dormitories. In North America, there isn’t a workforce of this level readily available at one location.
Advantages of manufacturing in North America: Here is a list of possible hidden financial and business costs, beyond unit price, to weigh into the decision that favours manufacturing in North America:
Profiles of 15 Alberta-based Companies in Electronics Design & Manufacturing
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Explanation of Terms
• After a new product has been designed, companies typically have a small number of the new product made (called prototyping), so they can interact with it. This always provides ideas for small improvements to make the product even better.
• High volume means a production run of millions of units. Medium volume runs are in the thousands of units and small volume runs are on the order of hundreds and may be prototype runs.
• Many of today`s electronic products, such as smart coffee machines and dishwashers, contain an embedded system, which is a computer system integrated into the product that is designed to perform a specific set of functions.
• A contract electronics manufacturer is an outsourced manufacturer. It allows the client to focus on product sales and engineering, without having to also manage the manufacturing. Based on their factory equipment, different contract manufacturers will have different capabilities and specialities.
• Low mix means a client has a very small amount of different product variations. This is often the case for a consumer electronics product. High mix means a client has several variations (10-20) of a product. Each variation requires a new manufacturing setup.